8 – Introduction to Nuclear Safeguards & Security: Nuclear Security Essentials

To review from the previous video, nuclear
security is the prevention and detection of–and response to–theft, sabotage, unauthorized
access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive
substances or their associated facilities. Nuclear security is often characterized by
the phrase “guards, guns, and gates,” but in reality you cannot just throw these things
at a nuclear facility, even if it was to the maximum extent possible, and expect the facility
to remain secure. Nuclear security involves the coordination
of those guards, guns, and gates with identification of–and Intel about–possible adversaries
legislative and regulatory frameworks, detection, and monitoring systems. Also culture, and even the threat that comes
from within a facility itself. This section will delve into these various
aspects of nuclear security. The concept of nuclear security first appeared
in policy in 1965. Then nineteen seventies terrorist attacks
on US personnel and interests abroad during the Nixon administration strengthened regulations
with the possibility that terrorists might turn their attention to nuclear. September 11, 2001 was a major turning point
in nuclear security. It showed that terrorists are no longer just
trying to target small populations and carry out small attacks, but carry out grander attacks
on indiscriminate populations. Since, al Qaeda and its affiliates stated
their desire to go nuclear and ISIS’s willingness to use chemical weapons illustrates their
potential willingness to acquire nuclear or radioactive materials or to sabotage a nuclear
facility for the purpose of releasing radiation. In the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit President
Obama stated that the risk of ISIS or other extremists getting nuclear weapons remains
one of the greatest threats to global security. Although this threat does not only exist from
terrorist organizations, because the threat does exist the goal of nuclear security is
to keep the risk of a nuclear incident as low as possible. Each state is ultimately responsible for providing
their own nuclear security. Because nuclear security is a global concern,
the IAEA helps by creating guidance. This guidance is in the Nuclear Security Series. This series began in 2006 and currently consists
of 25 publications. The series is divided up into four categories:
nuclear security fundamentals; nuclear security recommendations; implementing guides; and
technical guidance. The key document of the Nuclear Security Series
is under fundamentals. It’s the only document under fundamentals,
in fact. It’s called nuclear fundamentals, in fact. It’s called Nuclear Security Series 20: Objectives
and Essential Elements of the State’s Nuclear Security Regime. Although Nuclear Security Series 20 describes
12 essential elements for nuclear security. There is one essential element described,
the legislative and regulatory framework, that will help create a baseline for implementing
a nuclear security system for each facility. The legislative and regulatory framework should
cover all nuclear security within the State and should begin with the legislative domain
of a State considering facilities containing nuclear materials. From this legislative framework, administrative
systems will be introduced, as well as measures for Nuclear Security. Once these elements are in place, is necessary
to establish institutions and organizations that will work together to develop nuclear
security for each facility, based on the regulations issued in the framework. Finally, once all the necessary institutions
are in place, nuclear security systems, or physical protection systems, can be designed
and implemented at each facility. These nuclear security systems at these facilities,
however, must be compatible with the administrative system, institutions, and state entities that
make up the legislative and regulatory frameworks. The system provides oversight, creating uniformity,
and the level and measures of security that are used to protect various facilities. We refer to this system and all of its parts,
including the State bodies and institutions, facility operations, and physical protection
systems as the State’s “Nuclear Security Regime.” In addition to creating a robust legislative
and regulatory framework, a State must also build a nuclear security culture. Nuclear security culture is the assembly of
characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of individuals, organizations, and institutions,
which serve as a means to support and enhance nuclear security. Although nuclear security culture is not mentioned
as an essential element in Nuclear Security Series 20, it has its own implementing guide,
which you can find. It’s called Nuclear Security Series number
7. Nuclear security culture deals with the people
and personnel at these different points within their nuclear security regime, whether that
is in the legislature, administrative areas, the State organizations responsible for Nuclear
Security, or the personnel at the nuclear facilities. There is a particular focus with nuclear security
culture on the personnel at nuclear facilities. The focus on personnel transcends from all
levels at these facilities, from the high-level operators and managers to the lowest levels
of staff. Nuclear security culture is a concept of organizational
culture, creating norms within a facility. It creates avenues and expectations through
which employees can carry out best practices in nuclear security. A strong nuclear security culture allows the
employees to be cognizant of the different threats to the material within their facility. It provides training and creates expectations
for employees at facilities. For example, these employees might have a
culture to detect and report a colleague that they think might be trying to steal material
or sabotage the facility. This would be considered an insider threat. It is also necessary to create avenues for
these employees to report incidents, which is one of the ways that upper management should
have a strong security culture by allowing these avenues for the lower employees to report
these incidents and issues. Another example of security culture is with
alarms and guards. All alarms could indicate an intruder; however,
a strong security culture would ingrain norms for the guards to investigate every single
alarm that goes off, even if the alarm is usually set off by a small animal or the wind,
for example. The guards must know that it will be the one
alarm not checked that will be the adversary if they don’t check every alarm that goes
off. For more information on nuclear security culture,
refer to the NSSEP Nuclear Security Culture module.

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