Discrimination in education | Wikipedia audio article


Discrimination in education is the act of
discriminating against people belonging to certain categories in enjoying full right
to education. It is considered a violation of enunciated
human rights. Education discrimination can be on the basis
of ethnicity, nationality, age, gender, race, economic condition, disability and religion. The Convention against Discrimination in Education
adopted by UNESCO on 14 December 1960 aims to combat discrimination and racial segregation
in education. As at December 2016, 102 states were members
of the Convention.==Education discrimination in different countries
=====
Australia===Australia has had a history of racial discrimination
against Indigenous Australians in many areas, including education. In 1966, Australia signed the Convention against
Discrimination in Education. Each state now has comprehensive anti-discrimination
laws that prohibit such discrimination. In 1992, Australia enacted the Disability
Discrimination Act 1992 (Cwth) to outlaw discrimination against students with disabilities.===China===
Although all people are entitled to nine years of compulsory education in China, there are
reports showing that minorities including people with disabilities are discriminated
against in basic education. An example of such discrimination that is
reflected in the 2013 Human Rights Watch report is of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability who were denied enrollment in nearby schools
due to their disabilities. Their parents then had to travel long distances
from home to find a place for their disabled children for basic education. There are also policies for geographical allocation
of available sits in higher education system which led to regional discrimination in the
Higher Education Entrance Examination. In China every person has a place of origin
in connection to his/her birthplace, and moving or resettlement to provinces/zones other than
the ones of origin are subject to receive permits from the authorities. The students subject to regional discrimination
are those who managed to have a better record in the relevant exams but are denied studying
at top universities due to their place of origin.===Cuba===
Cuba has a diverse and multicultural society and there is potentially an available arena
for various forms of racial discrimination to grow. Some believe the Cuban educational system
suffers from racial discrimination, especially against Afro-Cubans, but the existence of
counterparts who believe otherwise can not be neglected. In the 1960s and 1970s, when the sexual minority
groups were sentenced to stay in rehabilitation camps, they automatically lost the opportunity
for higher education and were bound to “re-education” by the state. In 2010, Fidel Castro acknowledged such discrimination
during his rule, regretting that he did not pay enough attention to the “great injustice”
suffered.===Islamic Republic of Iran===
After the Islamic revolution, Bahá’í students have been systematically expelled from Iranian
universities on grounds of religion.===United States===The United States is not a signatory to the
Convention against Discrimination in Education. The United States has always had institutional
discrimination, with very high discrimination rates. Discrimination in education is not only performed
by one individual but by big organizations too. Discrimination can also take place by a teacher
which might have higher standards for one students than the other. Segregating schools is a way in which students
low income may be isolated from higher income students, which causes them to have a much
less efficient education. In 2004 many schools had a very disproportianed
number of minority students specific schools, in a Seattle neighborhood where the population
was 95% Caucasian the schools population was 99% black and Hispanic. (Kozol, 22) In San Diego CA, Rosa Parks school
has 86% black and Hispanic students and only 2% white, and in Los Angeles CA there is a
school that bears the name of Dr. King and it has 99% black and Hispanic students. (Kozol, 24)In the 1970s when the number students
attending New York’s schools were still substantially nonequal white, the number of doctors was
around 400. As the number of white students started to
decline so did the number of doctors available to attend to the needs of students. By 1993 the number of doctors had been cut
to 23 and most of them were part-time doctors, children in the Bronx where all this doctors
had been removed from were 20 more times more likely then those children living in the city
to suffer from asthma. (kazol, 42) Another clear example of discrimination
that Occurs today not just on the past is also clearly seen based on how each students
is categorized with a price tag on them a soon as they started attending school. The students living in a low income community
with low income families are valued are a lower priced then students that attend rich
a schools and live in a higher class community. What this labeling means is that is you are
born in a low income community you might received for example $8,000 a year but if you are born
in a rich community and attend a school at a rich community you might be receiving $16,000
a year for school education. “In 1998, New York’s Board of Education spent
about $8,000 yearly on the education of a third grade child in a New York City public
school”. (Kozol, 45) If you were to lift that same
child and put them in a typical white suburb of New York he/she would be worth about $12,000,
if you were to pick that child up once again and put him/her in one of the wealthiest white
suburbs of New York their price tag goes up to $18,000. (Kozol, 45) This labeling of students and
how much they will be receiving towards school education is clearly an example of discriminations
and a way in which the poor stay poor and the rich keep getting chances to get richer. Teachers at schools also get discriminated,
the wages they get pay in a low income school is far less than those working in wealthy
neighborhoods, the conditions in which schools are maintain is also discrimination because
students can’t learn the materials and score good in tests if they don’t have the proper
teachers, proper materials, proper nutrition and adequate class rooms. All of this examples that got mentioned are
clearly explain with much more detail information in the book The Shame of The Nation by Jonathan
Kozol. There is discrimination in Education, among
schools who are in areas of lower income (generally students of color). In The Shame of the Nation by Jonathan Kozol,
he provides us with examples of students who come from lower income residences attend school
with required work related workshops, instead of AP classes. Kozol provides us with an example of a student
named Mireya, a black student, who wanted to be a doctor or a social worker, but was
required to take a sewing class as well “Life Skill” class (Kozol, 178). In addition Mireya had plans to attend college,
Kozol asked the teacher why she was not able to skip these subject and take classes that
would help her pursue her college goals, Kozol was faced with the teachers response “It isn’t
a question of what students want. It’s what the school may have available (Kozol,
179). Mireya was face with a confrontation of another
student that made a claim “You’re ghetto-so you sew!” (Kozol, 180). From this example students of color who are
also low income, attend school that appear to be programmed to get them to the workforce
(job). As opposed to other privileged schools who
are able to provide their students with AP classes, getting them ready for college.==See also==
Convention against Discrimination in Education – a UNESCO initiative
Freedom of education Inclusion (education)
Right to education Racial segregation
Sex differences in education – sex-based discrimination in education and its effects
Malala Yousafzai==References==

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