How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

Microbes are everywhere, on your phone, in your water bottle, on your hands before you wash them, on your hands after you wash them, and literally everywhere else on top of you too. Microbes are omnipresent at any moment,
and there is nothing we can do about it So, millions of years ago we made a pact, we give them shelter and food, and in turn they work for us. But the more we learn about this partnership,
the more it looks like a cold war Inside our mother’s womb,
humans start out sterile When we are born and traveling
through the birth canal, billions of our mother’s bacteria cover
every single part of our bodies. This is an essential part of human health. Children born via C-section have a
higher rate of asthma, immune diseases and even leukemia. So our bodies do not only accept the invasion
of microorganisms, they welcome it. Over millions of years, we co-evolved to
make the best of our relationship. Mother’s milk for example, contains special sugars that are
meant to feed and support certain groups of microbes, work as a decoy for others, and help to modulate the
immune system. It takes up to two years, until a healthy
microbe community has formed. Every human has their own unique microbiome,
made up of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms. We have three categories of guests,
on and in our bodies. One: Quiet passengers that do their own thing,
and are politely ignored. By being there, they take up space and keep
more aggressive intruders in check. Two: Guests that harm us, But with whom we’ve learned to live, for example, bacteria that literally create
acid that melts our teeth, if we don’t brush enough. They want to take up as much
space as they can, and we don’t want them to. But, we can’t get rid of them entirely. Three: Friendly fellows that our bodies
want to have around, most of them are a community of
380,000 billion bacteria, from up to 5,000 different species,
that live in our gut. These gut microorganisms help us digest food, and pull additional calories from things
that we can’t digest ourselves. Unfortunately, our gut is also the
perfect point of attack for intruders, so it’s guarded by an aggressive army, our immune system. To survive here, our microbiome
co-evolved with us to be able to communicate
with our body. The most important part of that is to ask
the immune system to not kill them. But, they also have a real motivation
to keep our gut healthy, so some of them produce a
messenger substances, that help to educate the immune system, and others stimulate the gut cells
to regenerate faster. But, over the last few years. Evidence has emerged that the
influence of our gut microbiome, goes much much further. It might even talk directly to our brain. We’ve observed a few curious things, 90% of our body’s serotonin, an important messenger substance
for nerve cells, is produced in the gut. Some scientists think the
microbiome does this, to communicate with the vagus nerve. The information highway of our nervous system. Other examples are bacteria that
stimulate immune cells in the gut, so they send a kind of alarm
signal to the brain. Here, it activates immune cells that help
the brain recover from injuries. Since the brain decides what we eat, the microbiome is interested
in a healthy brain. A new field of science is
opening up here, and we’re just on the verge of
understanding how these complex systems inside our bodies interact. But we are starting to see how
much our microbiome actually influences us and our behavior. Take depression for example, Healthy rats fed microbes from the
guts of depressed people, began showing anxiety-like behavior, and symptoms that look like depression. And in early 2017, a study linked the
microbiome to intelligence, by connecting a certain set up
of bacteria in newborns, with better motor and language skills. But it might also influence our daily lives. Tests with fruit flies, showed that their microbiome, influenced
what kinds of food they craved. This could mean your microbes are
able to tell your brain, which food it should get them. Although, this is not a one-way street The seed for our microbiome
comes from our mother, but how it develops and changes, is
determined by what we eat. the organisms in our gut feed
on different things, some like fibers and leafy greens, others go for sugars and starches, and some love greasy fries and butter. Our gut is like a garden in which
we constantly decide, what will grow and blossom. If we eat healthily, we breed bacteria
that like healthy food. If we eat a lot of fast food, then we
breed fast food loving bacteria. Life is hard, so we can get trapped
in a vicious circle. You have a stressful time, and eat lots
of burgers and fries and pizza. This is awesome for fast food bacteria, they multiply and multiply, and take up space
from vegetable loving bacteria. But even worse, they send signals to the
brain to continue what it’s doing. this makes you want more
fast food. Which breeds more fast
food bacteria, which makes you crave fast food,
and so on. This kind of self-reinforcing cycle, could play a huge role in obesity. But, it’s important to stress that you
can fight this process, and reverse it, by eating healthily and
breeding more good bacteria. Beyond weight gain, our microbiome
has also been linked to other serious diseases like autism, schizophrenia, and cancer. One of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson’s,
is actually gut problems. If your body is overrun with
bacteria that harm you, there is often only one solution. You bring in an army of good guys. That’s very easy, You just transplant some healthy poop. You do that by literally transferring poop,
from a healthy person, into your gut. This method is already used,
to cure diarrhea that’s caused when C. difficile bacteria,
take over a gut microbiome. But we just don’t know enough about
the complex interplay at work here yet. For example, a transplant from an overweight
donor cured a woman’s diarrhea, but contributed to her obesity down the line. This caused some ways and another
study tried to reverse the effect. Poop transplants from slim people
to obese ones, gave them a more diverse microbiome, and made them less sensitive to insulin. Both things that also happen when
people lose weight We need to do a lot more science,
to really understand how our microbes make us
healthy or sick. But, whether we like it or not. We need our microbiome, and it needs us. We’ll never have our bodies to ourselves. But we have gained a powerful ally, if we can just keep the peace.

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100 Responses

  1. Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell says:

    There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here:

  2. The Unseen says:

    I was born with a sea-section so I'm basically fucked for life and cursed with asthma and poor speech

  3. Oz Kal says:

    U cant be serious with the poop transplantation

  4. Random Memes Weekly says:

    my bacteria apparently loves tea

  5. 성문규 says:

    I want the poop of the person with the highest iq in the planet inside of my gut right now.

  6. Cole Krumrey says:

    My microbiome craves four things in particular: sugar, grain, protein (preferably poultry or fish) and dairy (particularly cheese and chocolate). Luckily, most of the stuff I eat has fruits and vegetables mixed in with these things.

  7. Bread doge says:

    6:21 lol

  8. Something_to_appease_Google says:

    Eat raw meat. That’s what your gut wants more than anything.

  9. The Man Downstairs says:

    Good balanced diet is about (roughly): 25% starches, grains, rice, beans, quinoa, and other carbohydrates; 25% meat, cheese, nuts, mushrooms, and other proteins; 50% fruit, vegetables, avocados, leafy greens, and other nice plant things. Cut down on milk, drink 1 oz. of water for every pound you weigh in a day. Eat more natural cuts and less smoked, salted, and cured meats and you should be about good! Enjoy a healthy gut biome.
    Source: Harvard

  10. Griffen Bragagnolo says:

    do a multiverse video

  11. zapper says:

    What if I love rice? Seriously, rice is so good

  12. Liliana Walker says:

    So if our mother dictates the starting status of your micro biome, and people’a gut biome has been related to weight gain/loss that means you will likely be similar in weight to your mom….

    It’s my mom’s fault I’m fluffy XD!!!!

  13. YoyoEthan 11 says:

    After this vid, I now realized how complicated humans are

  14. ? says:

    6:20 That is how people poop in their butt

  15. Aulya Diamond says:

    6:21 W0t

  16. Manahil Saleem says:

    This should be in books. Everyone deserves to know what's happening with you.
    The animation is cute!!!💜👏😍😉

  17. Zollinar the magical seal says:

    oh so thats why I like cucumbers

  18. Ty Pryor says:

    4:35 LLEMMONSSS.

  19. Elliott Pascoe says:

    Bacillus Lemon obsessium is a pathogen that infects millions of poor fruit flies and humans every day

  20. Brown fluffy chicken says:

    So you’re saying if vaccines do cause autism it would have to have the bacteria that gives us autism? Now we have more evidence that vaccines don’t cause autism.

  21. vf fa says:

    C-section also causes Autism, Parkinson's, Ebola, Aids and most importantly: the Pestilence!

  22. MaterClaritas says:

    hey kurzgesagt, buddy, pal, im gonna need you not to call the way my brain is (autism) a disease, thanks

  23. n0 0ne says:

    1:14 is that supposed to be a tit

  24. Colin Davo says:

    Me to D ribe


  25. Colin Davo says:

    I am


  26. Colin Davo says:

    not to day

  27. Colin Davo says:

    Check out supersockmanfromthefutuer and

    Subscribe to my best friend NOW

  28. IM COOL says:

    Me : see they're not so bad

    Everything that has "micro" in it's name : Little did he know

  29. Kings Dominion Network says:

    I was c sectioned and I have asthma

  30. klystron2010 says:

    I stuffed someone else's shit up my ass but I'm still depressed.

  31. TheBlackAvatar says:

    Alright fucks rent is due

  32. Lavina Rodriguez says:

    So how long would it take to get rid of the unhealthy food bacteria & replace it with healthy food bacteria ???

  33. Schmippy Scrahahooie says:

    Kurzgesagt: That's very easy!
    Me: Oh good!
    Kurzgesagt: YoU jUsT tRaNsPlAnT sOmE hEaLtHy PoOp!
    Me: WTF
    Kurzgesagt: Shows graphic
    Me: Clicks off video

  34. Beep Beep Lettuce 420 says:

    I made the mistake to watch this during lunch

  35. Vincent Ciccone says:

    This video was made by a bacteria.

  36. Fuckup cunt says:

    It is insane how complicated the human body is.

  37. Cade Reddington says:

    I was a c-section baby. I have none of those health problems. I am immune •____•

  38. Cryz says:

    can i just tell my microbes to stop being a prick and make me actually eat healthy food

  39. Finanov says:

    I just ate a bag of Cheetos. I blame my gut bacteria.

  40. cyndee acosta-contreras says:

    Me: drinks water and throws the bottle away * Me: *grabs water bottle again Me: DONT DIE ON ME!

  41. Abraão Andrade says:

    Immune system is so darn cute :3

  42. Nathan Weatherly says:

    Bacteria: 😀

  43. Prankster gangster says:

    What would happen if I ate healthy poop would i be healthy?

  44. Moon says:

    I feel like I'm getting cancer for everything I do

  45. Harry K says:

    my body:
    fast food bacteria: yo we the kings here
    immune system: smh… peace out

  46. DjMaika says:

    And if I try to explain this to my mom, she'll think it's bullshit.

  47. Esaú Miller says:

    In 6:54 making a person with obesity less sensitive to insulin it's a good thig for thar person?

  48. Yahya Kamran says:


  49. Blind ASMR says:

    He said poop ha ha

  50. Ori Shahar says:

    as someone with crohn decease this video helped me a lot

  51. Destiny Wade says:

    Shoved poop in my ASSHOLE.

  52. KoluzX says:

    I felt bad when the immune system microbe squished the other microbe

  53. S.Dilip Kumar Singha says:

    Wonderful information

  54. Larissa Larissa says:

    I can't even get a bird 🙁 … i didn't even know that the feeling that force you to eat more is by mirobes

  55. Stephen Ruffino says:

    Probably not the best video to watch while eating…

  56. brien berry says:

    Poop transplant? Aight im bout to head out.

  57. Ayaan Tariq says:

    we use phages

  58. Loɴᴇʟʏ says:

    You should be my science teacher

  59. Loɴᴇʟʏ says:

    Mom: stop eating junk food!
    Me: don't blame me Blame the Microbes

  60. Texas Ball says:

    I was C-Sectioned I'm as healthy as ever

  61. lizzylizardking says:

    This video was very interesting! Tho now i have to live with the fact that shit transfer exist now !

  62. A. F. says:

    not sure if bread with tomato sauce and mozzarella is to be considered "fast food"

  63. Ck lemri says:

    vaginal canal is essential for your immunity, u know what to do ninja bois

  64. منير النمر says:

    In conclude this mean they are venom 🧟‍♂️🧟‍♂️

  65. Kevin Norris says:

    So, the takeaway here is that the brain is at least partially run by representative democracy. Nice to know my gut fauna get a say in policy decisions!

  66. erfoo says:

    i wonder if they make art of us

  67. Rebeca Ledezma says:

    This is very educational

  68. tea wrecks says:

    or moms should just feed their babies their own poop instead of Gerber

    it works for koalas and elephants

  69. WonderFoxGD says:

    This video is really cute hehe.

  70. Effindi Kamaruddin says:


  71. Jonathan Perez says:

    When Kurg said autism, I remembered that I have it 🙂

  72. Thei Thei says:

    Kurzgesagt provides entertainment and information at the same time just hands down amazing 👏

  73. Mr.Krabs says:

    My bacteria loves pasta and caramel😂😂

  74. toxic potato says:

    Normal people: fungi
    Kurzgesagt: FONGEY

  75. Glorious Delta says:

    Who else is here after trash’s video?

  76. Josh Safe says:

    Autism is not a “serious disease”. And definitely not caused by gut bacteria wtf. Goodbye kurzegagt I loved your videos but that’s a red flag.

  77. Jovanni Perez says:

    What about the cold war tho?

  78. Hotel Val Sinestra says:

    oh oh 😨

  79. Drama Lord says:

    Who said I didn't have friends

  80. Thecommander248 says:

    What the fuck? I have salt loving microbes in my stomach? I thought I just really liked salty stuff. looks at my healthy bacteria Why didn't you tell me? they shrug

  81. Viper !!! says:

    Autism is not a disease ! I’m yelling that to you

  82. pradumnya bhor says:

    I've got a gut feeling dat biology is very understand

  83. tetrofita178 says:

    Autism is not a sickness
    It’s a condition

  84. Harold D Burke says:

    Poop transplants uh? How about a butt transplant ?

  85. Bearded potato says:

    Some like greasy frys and butter me raises hand

  86. Anita Lam says:

    🧪 has a good idea!

  87. Anita Lam says:

    This is a virus 🦠

  88. NPC 86740296 says:

    40$ per poop scoop tho. You can make up to 1120$ per month (if you donate you of course).

  89. NPC 86740296 says:

    That is all

  90. CrimsonSpades says:

    @Kurzgesagt Hey, I know this is an old video but I'd like to know where you guys got your sources for this video. I want to use it in a paper over food.

  91. TheSeventhPrussian says:


    Wait, autism is not a disease…

  92. Adam Dzieszko says:

    Poop transplant Poop transplant

  93. Carol Thompson says:

    I think you mean more sensitive to insulin instead of less! Love you all! Your videos rock.

  94. The ultimate pianist says:

    I wish this guy was my science teacher my science is boring , but not you

  95. pluse studio says:


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  97. Rizky Satya says:

    Kurtzgesagt talking about putting someone feces into your own guts so casually like it was nothing

  98. Damon Oh says:

    so interesting

  99. Horse-face Specials says:

    Because you ARE made of cells!

  100. D. Nephi says:

    I love all of the videos you guys produce and I am unbelievably grateful for their existence,,,but,,,,please don’t call autism a disease, thanks 🙏
    Edit: 5:55 is the reference

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