Secondary education

Secondary education normally takes place in
secondary schools, taking place after primary education and may be followed by higher education
or vocational training. In some countries, only primary or basic education is compulsory,
but secondary education is included in compulsory education in most countries. Terminology
Secondary schools may be called high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, sixth-form,
sixth-form colleges, vocational schools, or preparatory schools, and the exact meaning
of any of these varies between the countries. By country Argentina The school system is free and mandatory.
Australia School is compulsory in Australia between
the ages of fivesixteen or seventeen, depending on the state, with, in recent years, over
three-quarters of people staying on until their thirteenth year in school. Government
schools educate about two-thirds of Australian students, with the other third in independent
schools. Government schools are free although most schools charge what are known as “voluntary
contributions” or “Tax Levies”, while independent schools, both religious and secular, charge
fees as well as levies. Regardless of what whether a school is government or independent,
it is required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks. Most school students, be they
in government or independent school, usually wear uniforms, although there are varying
expectations and a few school exceptions. Each State and Territories has its own format
of Year 12 Matriculation: Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12
Certificate South Australia: South Australian Certificate
of Education Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies
Certificate / Northern Territory Certificate of Education
Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education New South Wales: Higher School Certificate
Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education
or Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate
of Education Belgium
For more details see Education in Belgium – Secondary education The Belgian school has
a three-tier education system, each stage being divided into various levels:
Basic education Nursery school: for children aged 3 to 6 – is
not compulsory Primary school: for children aged 6 to 12
– is compulsory Secondary education: there are three cycles
Post secondary education: organised by universities or schools of higher education, but also by
adult education institutions 3-year further education at bachelor level
5-year further education at master’s level Brazil In Brazil, since 1996 high school is officially
called Ensino Médio. Until the year 1971, ensino médio had three different names: curso
científico, curso normal and curso clássico. As a result, the course was changed after
and called colegial, also divided, with the first three years were the same for everyone
and anyone who would subsequently make the old normal and clássico, had to do another
year. Historically, in Brazil, is called the secondary
what is now the second part of the school together with the high school.
It is the last phase to basic education, Brazilian high school lasts 3 years, attempting to deepen
what students have learned in the Ensino Fundamental. Brazilian high school students are referenced
by their year – 1st, 2nd and 3rd years. Unlike other countries, Brazilian students
don’t have a final test to conclude studies. Their approval depends only on their final
grade on each subject. Each university elaborates its own test to select new students – this
test, the vestibular, generally happens once a year. Enem, a non-mandatory national exam,
evaluates high school students in Brazil and is used to rank both private and public schools.
The best scores in vestibular and in Enem Do G1, em São Paulo. “G1>Vestibular e Educação
– NOTÍCIAS – Veja as 20 melhores escolas do país no Enem 2007”. Retrieved
2011-09-25.  and the best universities are concentrated on the Southern and Southeastern
regions of the country, mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais,
Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, and in the Federal District.
The lack of funds and historical and social problems contribute to poor attendance from
the students, especially those in public schools. Private establishments, on the other hand,
may be recognized as academically excellent or merely as investments in social networking.
Schedules vary from school to school. The subjects taught, however, are conceived by
the Ministério da Educação which emphasises the hard sciences.
The educational year begins in February and finishes in December; institutions are permitted
to define their own actual start and end dates. They must, however, provide at least 200 days
of classes per year. Universities are also divided into public
and private. At this level, public ones are considered excellent and their vestibular
exam is highly competitive. For better preparation, therefore, many students take a curso pré-vestibular,
which is offered by large private high schools. Colombia Secondary education in Colombia is divided
into two; basic secondary that goes from years 6 to 9, and mid secondary that are grades
10 and 11. In Colombia, education has always been mandatory but it wasn’t until 2012, that
all education for kids and teens was made free of charge at any public institution.
Cyprus 1.1 General overview of education stages Cyprus
has a three-tier educational system, each stage being divided into specific levels:
Basic education Nursery Not obligatory
Pre-primary school At the age of five, children normally attend the pre primary class, which
prepares them to join Primary school Primary school Primary school has six grades.
Secondary education Gymnasium After primary school, students attend
the lower secondary school which has three grades.
Eniaio Lykeio or Unified Lyceum Post secondary education Public Tertiary Institutions
or Universities Czech Republic The Czech school system is, due to historic
reasons, almost the same as the German school system. The school system is free and mandatory
to age 15. After the Základní škola in age of 15, students are directed to three
different optional secondary education schools: Střední odborné učiliště – designed
for students going into a trade Education is 3 years long and entrance exam free, combined
with practice, finished with a certificate. Střední odborná škola – designed for students
going into a profession and finishes with maturita as exit exam. The leaving exam consist
of 2 compulsory and 2 optional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Czech language and World Literature
and one other language. Optional ones depend on the type of school The study is 4 years
long and you need to pass an entrance exam Gymnázium – designed for students going to
university/college and finishes with a maturita exam. Also with two mandatory subjects Czech
language and World Literature and one other language or Math. Optional subjects vary,
usually between humanistic and science. The study is 4, 6 or 8 years long. In case of
6 years one, the pupils finish elementary school two years earlier and this two years
has harder studying programme on Gymnasium. There are also entry exams to all these programmes.
The maturita is required for study in University. The Abitur from Gymnasium is better for Humanistic
pointed University and SOŠ Abitur is better for Technical pointed university.
Croatia Secondary education is now compulsory.
Secondary schools in Croatia are subdivided into:
gymnasiums with four available educational tracks; prirodoslovno-matematička gimnazija,
jezična gimnazija, klasična gimnazija and opća gimnazija.
vocational schools. Gymnasiums, schools of economics and schools
of engineering take four years. There are also some vocational schools that last only
three years. Secondary schools supply students with primary
subjects needed for the necessary work environment in Croatia. People who completed secondary
school are classified as “medium expertise”. There are currently around 90 gymnasiums and
some 300 vocational schools in Croatia. The public secondary schools are under the jurisdiction
of regional government, the counties. Denmark In Denmark it is mandatory to receive education
answering to the basic school syllabus until the 10th year of school education. Since 2009
it has been compulsory to also attend pre-school. Furthermore, pupils can choose an 11th year
of school. After the basic school the majority of pupils between ages 15–19 usually choose
to go through the 3-year “Gymnasium”, which is University-preparatory. Youngsters not
attending the Gymnasium most commonly attend vocational training. There are over 100 different
vocational courses in Denmark. Egypt
The secondary school, or publicly known as Thanawya Amma.It is a three years program
after which the student, according to his score in the final year( 2 years previously),
can join a higher level of education in a university or,when the score is less, an institution
of education that issues a degree not equal with the university one.
Finland The Finnish education system is a comparatively
egalitarian Nordic system. This means for example no tuition fees for full-time students
and free meals are served to pupils. There are private schools but they are made unattractive
by legislation. The second level education is not compulsory,
but an overwhelming majority attends. There is a choice between upper secondary school
and vocational school. Graduates of both upper secondary school and vocational school can
apply to study in further education. Upper secondary school, unlike vocational
school, concludes with a nationally graded matriculation examination. Passing the test
is a de facto prerequisite for further education. The system is designed so that approximately
the lowest scoring 5% fails and also 5% get the best grade. The exam allows for a limited
degree of specialization in either natural sciences or social sciences. The graduation
is an important and formal family event, like christening, wedding, and funeral.
In the OECD’s international assessment of student performance, PISA, Finland has consistently
been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003, Finnish 15-year-olds came first in
reading literacy, science, and mathematics; and second in problem solving, worldwide.
The World Economic Forum ranks Finland’s tertiary education #1 in the world.”The Global Competitiveness
Report 2006–2007: Country Highlights”. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
Germany The German school system is free and compulsory
until 9th grade. After the Grundschule, teachers recommend each pupil for one of three different
types of secondary education. Parents have the final say about which school their child
will attend. Hauptschule – designed for students going
into trades such as construction; complete after 9th or 10th grade. During apprenticeships,
pupils then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has
been subject to significant criticism, as it tends to segregate the children of immigrants
with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
Realschule – designed for students who want to apprentice for white-collar jobs not requiring
university studies, such as banking; complete after 10th grade. Those who change their minds
and decide to attend university can proceed after testing to:
Gymnasium – academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or
polytechnics. Some offer a classical education, while others concentrate on economics and
the like. The curriculum leading to the Abitur degree were recently reduced from 13th grade
to 12th grade. The Gesamtschule, a mixed ability school,
puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite
rare. Students with special needs are assigned to
Förderschule. Hong Kong secondary school, college
Secondary education in Hong Kong is largely based on the British education system. Secondary
school starts in the seventh year, or Form One, of formal education, after Primary Six.
Students normally spend five years in secondary schools, of which the first three years are
compulsory like primary education. Forms Four and Five students prepare for the Hong Kong
Certificate of Education Examination, which takes place after Form Five. Students obtaining
a satisfactory grade will be promoted to Form Six. They then prepare for the Hong Kong Advanced
Level Examination, which is to be taken after Form Seven. The HKALE and HKCEE results will
be considered by universities for admission. Some secondary schools in Hong Kong are called
‘colleges’. In some schools, Form Six and Form Seven are also called Lower Six and Upper
Six respectively. The HKCEE is equivalent to the British GCSE
and HKALE is equivalent to the British A-level. As of October 2004, there has been heated
discussion on proposed changes in the education system, which includes reduction of the duration
of secondary education from seven years to six years, and merging the two exams HKCEE
and HKALE into one exam, Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. The proposed changes
will take effect in 2009. The secondary education system of Hong Kong,
just as other East Asian countries, is examination-oriented. This does the strong but controversial post-school
tutorial education industrya favor. India In India, Before The Indian Constitutional
Amendment in 2002, Article 45 of the Constitution was- “Art.45. Provision for free and compulsory
education for children.—The State shall endeavour to provide,within a period of ten
years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all
children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” But that Constitutional obligation
was time and again deferred – first to 1970 and then to 1980,1990 and 2000. The 10th Five-Year
Plan visualizes that India will achieve the Universal Elementary Education by 2007. However,
the Union Human Resource Development Minister announced in 2001 that India will achieve
this target only by 2010. Bill, 2002, renumbered as the Constitution Act, 2002, which was passed
on 12 December 2002 stated: An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. . BE it
enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. Short
title and commencement. This Act may be called the Constitution Act, 2002. It shall come
into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
appoint. 2. Insertion of new article 21A.- After article 21 of the Constitution, the
following article shall be inserted, namely Right to education.- “Art.21A. The State shall
provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years
in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.”. 3. Substitution of new article for article
45.- For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-
Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. “Art.45.
The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children
until they complete the age of six years.”. 4. Amendment of article 51A.
Ireland In Ireland secondary school starts at the
age of 12, and lasts three or optionally five or six years. The main types of secondary
school are: community schools, comprehensive schools, colleges, vocational schools, voluntary
secondary schools and meánscoileanna. After three years, every student takes a compulsory
state exam known as the Junior Certificate. Typically a student will sit exams in 9 to
11 subjects; English, Irish and Mathematics are compulsory.
After completing the Junior Certificate, a student may continue for two years to take
a second state exam, the Leaving Certificate, around age 17-18. Students typically take
6-8 subjects. Except in exceptional circumstances, subjects taken must include Irish, English,
a foreign language and Mathematics. Leaving Certificate results directly determine admission
to university via a ranking system managed by the CAO. More than 80% of students who
complete the Junior Certificate continue to the Leaving Certificate.
There is an optional year in many secondary schools in Ireland known as Transition Year,
which some students choose to take after completing the Junior Certificate, and before starting
the Leaving Certificate. Focusing on broadening horizons, the year is often structured around
student projects such as producing a magazine, charity work, running a small business, etc.
Regular classes may be mixed with classes on music, drama, public speaking, etc. Transition
Year is not formally examined but student progress is monitored by teachers on a continuous
basis. Programs vary from school to school. This year also focuses on giving the children
an insight into the working world through work experience placements.
In addition to the main school system, Ireland has a parallel system of vocational schools,
which place less focus on academic subjects and more on vocational and technical skills
– around 25% of students attend these. Many vocational schools also offer night classes
to adults. There is also a prominent movement known as Gaelscoileanna where every subject
is taught through the Irish Language, and these are growing fast in number.
Italy Secondary school starts at age 11, after 5
years of Primary school, and lasts 8 years. Secondary school is divided in 3 + 5 years,
according to the following scheme: Scuola secondaria di primo grado: it is mandatory
and lasts 3 years. It has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical
subjects. It ends with a final exam, which awards a diploma.
Scuola secondaria di secondo grado: it lasts 5 years and offers a number of different paths,
which can freely be chosen by the pupil; the first 2 years are mandatory. All paths offers
a basic knowledge of Italian and Latin languages and Literature , History, Geography, Philosophy,
Mathematics, Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and foreign language. There are three different
high schools in Italy: Liceo mostly theoretical and Humanities-oriented; Istituto tecnico,
originally reserved for those who sought a highly qualified work, but today is used as
a more scientific-technical route to access university; Istituto professionale, mainly
vocational school which offers a very specialized formation on a specific field for those looking
into entering work. All kind of secondary schools end with an
examination whose score is on a 100 point scale.
Iraq Secondary Education in Iraq comprises TWO
stages, each ending in Baccalaureate Examination Intermediate three years
Preparatory three years. No student is admitted to college in Iraq
before passing the Baccalaureate Examination held by this Ministry for Preparatory Schools.
The maximum obtainable mark is 100, the minimum passing mark is 50.
Republic of Macedonia High school in Republic of Macedonia is called
“средно училиште” or “middle school”, and the structure is left from the
socialists period. Reforms are conducting at the moment, so the education would be appropriate
with the most of the leading world countries.That means that there are still many forms. In
general there is high school for preparing for every faculty on the university. There
are: electro technical high school, mechanical high school, economics high school, pharmaceutical,
medical, and natural sciences and linguistics gymnasium. The high school is attended between
the years of 14 and 18. Malaysia The national secondary education in Malaysia,
modelled after the English system, consists of 5 school years referred to as “forms”.
Students begin attending secondary schools in the year they turn 13, after sitting for
the UPSR at the end of primary school. Students failing the academic requirement in UPSR are
required to read an additional year called the Remove year before they are allowed to
proceed to Form 1. Automatic promotion up to Form 5 has been in place since 1996. Some
secondary schools offer an additional two years known as sixth form, divided into lower
sixth and upper sixth. Forms 1 to 3 are known as Lower Secondary,
while Forms 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary. Streaming into Art, Science or Commerce streams
is done at the beginning of the Upper Secondary stage. Students sit for a standardised test
at the end of both stages; Penilaian Menengah Rendah for Lower Secondary, and Sijil Pelajaran
Malaysia for Upper Secondary. At the end of the sixth form, students sit for the Sijil
Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia or the Malaysian Higher School Certificate. The language of
instruction in national secondary schools is Malay except for language, science and
mathematics subjects. Science and mathematics subjects are taught in English since 2003,
but Malay will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.
Nepal Nepal Ranks 11th in Quality education in the
world. Tribhuwan International University and The British College are the worldwide
known institutions. Secondary education, duration in Nepal was 7.00 as of 2012. Its highest
value over the past 42 years was 7.00 in 2012, while its lowest value was 5.00 in 1970. Definition:
Secondary education, duration is the number of grades in secondary school. Source: United
Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics.
Mexico Lower-secondary education is considered part
of basic education in Mexico and is compulsory. For entry, students are required to have successfully
completed six years of primary education. The next stage, Upper-Secondary Education
or Preparation School, became compulsory since 2012 and has three pathways: General upper-secondary,
Technical professional education, and Technological upper-secondary, as it has been called “Bachillerato”
it has been frequently confused with the U.S.A. “Bachelors Level” which is called “Licenciatura
o Ingeniería” in Latin American countries (well not all, as in Venezuela, the U.S.A.
Bachelor’s Level is referred to as “Doctor”.”Education Around The World: Mexico”. Retrieved
2011-09-25.  Netherlands In The Netherlands, high school is called
middelbare school and starts right after the 6th grade of primary school. The pupils who
attend high school are around the age of 12. Because education in the Netherlands is compulsory
between the ages of 4 and 16, all pupils must attend high school.
The high schools are part of the voortgezet onderwijs. The voortgezet onderwijs consists
of 3 main streams: vmbo, which has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels; havo,
which has 5 grades, and vwo, which has 6 grades. The choice for a particular stream is made
based on the scores of an aptitude test, the advice of the grade 6 teacher, and the opinion
of the pupil’s parents or caretakers. It is possible to switch between streams. After
completing a particular stream, a pupil can continue in the penultimate year of the next
stream, from vmbo to havo, and from havo to vwo.
Successfully completing a particular stream grants access to different levels of tertiary
education. After vmbo, a pupil can continue training at the mbo. A havo diploma allows
for admission to the hbo, which are universities of professional education. Only with vwo can
a pupil enter into a research university. New Zealand In New Zealand students attend secondary school
from the ages from about 13 to 18. Formerly known as Forms 3 to 7, these grades are now
known as Years 9 to 13. Schooling is compulsory until the student’s 15th or 16th birthday.
In some areas of the country, secondary school is colloquially known as “college”. NCEA is
the Government-supported school qualification. New Zealand also has intermediate schools,
but these cover the last two years of primary education and are not secondary schools.
Pakistan Secondary education in Pakistan begins from
grade 9 and lasts for four years. Upon completion of grade 10, students are expected to take
a standardised test administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education.
Upon successful completion of this examination, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate.
This locally termed as ‘matriculation certificate’ or ‘matric’ for short. Students then enter
a college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of grade 12, they again take a
standardised test which is also administered by the regional boards. Upon successful completion
of this test, students are awarded the Higher Secondary Certificate. This level of education
is also called the F.Sc.ICS or ‘intermediate’. There are many streams students can choose
for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities, computer science
and commerce. Some technical streams have recently been introduced for grades 11 and
12. Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are
also available but not maintained by the BISE but by other examination boards. Most common
alternative is the General Certificate of Education, where SSC and HSC are replaced
by Ordinary Level and Advanced Level respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces
SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards
of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and Edexcel of the Pearson PLC. Advanced Placement is
an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary
school education as ‘High School Education’ instead. AP exams are monitored by a North
American examination board, College Board and can only be given under supervision of
centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE OA Level and IGCSE which
can also be given privately. Paraguay In Paraguay, the secondary education is called
Educación Media. After nine years of Educación Escolar Básica, the student can choose to
go to either a Bachillerato Técnico or a Bachillerato Científico, both are part of
the Educación Media’ system. This two forms of secondary education last three years, and
are usually located in the same campus called Colegio. The Bachillerato Técnico combine
general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and
career orientation. Some of the fields are mechanical, electricity, commerce, construction,
business administration, etc. After completing secondary education, one
can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both Técnico
and Científico schooling. Poland Portugal See High School in Portugal
Russia There were around 60,000 general education
schools in 2007–2008 school year;”Statistics: number of schools by type and year”. Ministry
of Education and Science. 2008-10-06.  this number includes ca. 5,000 advanced learning
schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc., 2,300 advanced general-purpose
schoolsThose identified as Russian: Гимназии и лицеи, gymnasiums and lycaeums. and
1,800 schools for all categories of disabled children; it does not include vocational technical
school and technicums. Private schools accounted for 0.3% of elementary school enrolment in
2005 and 0.5% in 2005.Education for all by 2015, p. 284
According to a 2005 UNESCO report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary
schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.
Singapore Children attend Primary school for the first
6 levels, then secondary schools for the next 4/5 levels, which is followed by either junior
college for 2-year courses or centralised institutes for 3-year courses.
Based on results of the Primary School Leaving Examination, Singapore’s students undergo
secondary education in either the Special, Express, Normal streams or the Integrated
Programme. Both the Special and Express are 4-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge
General Certificate of Education ‘Ordinary’ – ‘O’ level examination. The difference between
Special and Express is that the former takes higher Mother Tongue, which can be used as
a first language in exams instead of the subject “mother tongue” that Express students take.
However if some Express students can cope with higher Mother Tongue, they are allowed
to used it as a first language in exams too. The Normal stream is a four-year course leading
up to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE “Normal” – “N” level examination, with the possibility of
a 5th year followed by a Singapore-Cambridge GCE “Ordinary” – “O” level examination. It
is split into “Normal” and “Normal” where in the latter students take subjects that
are technical in nature, such as Design and Technology.
The Integrated Programme is a 6-year programme offered to the top 10 percent of the cohort
to pass through the O level exams, and go straight to the affiliated JC.
After the second year of a secondary school course, students are typically streamed into
a wide range of course combinations, making the total number of subject they have to sit
for in “O” level six to ten subjects. This includes science, humanities and additional
mathematics subject at a higher level, or “combined” subject modules.
Some schools have done away with the O level examination, and pupils only sit for the A
level examination or the International Baccalaureate at the end of their sixth year.
Co-curricular activities have become compulsory at the Secondary level, where all pupils must
participate in at least one core CCA, and participation is graded together with other
things like Leadership throughout the four years of Secondary education, in a scoring
system. Competitions are organised so that students can have an objective towards to
work, and in the case of musical groups, showcase talents. “Co-Curricular Activities”. Archived
from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
Slovenia In Slovenia, a variety of high-school institutions
for secondary education exists one can choose in accordance with his or her interests, abilities
and beliefs. The majority of them are public and government-funded, although there are
some diocesan upper secondary schools and a Waldorf upper secondary school, which are
private and require tuition to be paid. Upper secondary schools are the most elite
and the most difficult high-school programmes, intended for the best students that wish to
pursue university education in the future. They are further divided into general upper
secondary schools, classical upper secondary schools, technical upper secondary schools,
upper secondary schools for arts, and upper secondary schools for business. They all last
for four years and conclude with a compulsory leaving examination that is a prerequsite
for studying at universities. Their curricula include a wide range of subjects that should
deliver a broad general knowledge. Technical high schools last for four years
and cover a wide range of disciplines. They end with a vocational leaving examination
and allow pupils to study at vocational or professional colleges.
Vocational high schools come in two varieties: the dual and in school-based programme. For
the former, the apprenticeship is provided by employers, while the practical training
for the latter is offered in school. Both of them complete with a final examination.
Students may continue their education in the two-year vocational-technical programme, which
prepares them for vocational leaving exam if they want to pursue higher education.
The leaving exam course is a one-year programme, intended for vocational leaving exam graduates.
After completing leaving exam course, they take the leaving examination, which makes
the eligible for university education. The Vocational course is a one-year programme
provided to upper secondary school students who, for various reasons, do not want to continue
their education. It concludes with a final examinations, qualifying the applicants for
a selected occupation. Spain Secondary education in Spain is called Educación
Secundaria Obligatoria, usually known as E.S.O., and lasts for 4 years. As its name indicates,
every Spanish citizen must, by law, attend secondary education when they arrive at the
defined age. The State is also committed to guaranteeing every student the possibility
of attending it, and also at a state run school if so demanded.
Turkey Secondary education includes all of the general,
vocational and technical education institutions that provide at least four years of education
after primary school. The system for being accepted to a high school changes almost every
year. Sometimes private schools have different exams, sometimes there are 3 exams for 3 years,
sometimes there’s only one exam but it is calculated differently, sometimes they only
look at your school grades. Secondary education aims to give students a good level of common
knowledge, and to prepare them for higher education, for a vocation, for life and for
business in line with their interests, skills and abilities. In the academic year 2001-2002
2.3 million students were being educated and 134,800 teachers were employed in 6,000 education
institutions. General secondary education covers the education of children between 15-18
for at least four years after primary education. General secondary education includes high
schools, foreign language teaching high schools, Anatolian High Schools, high schools of science,
Anatolia teacher training high schools, and Anatolia fine arts high schools.[8] Vocational
and technical secondary education involves the institutions that both raise students
as manpower in business and other professional areas, prepare them for higher education and
meet the objectives of general secondary education. Vocational and technical secondary education
includes technical education schools for boys, technical education schools for girls, trade
and tourism schools, religious education schools, multi-program high schools, special education
schools, private education schools and health education schools. Secondary education is
often referred as high school education, since the schools are called lyceum.
Ukraine United Kingdom
Main articles: Education in the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom secondary schools offer
secondary education covering the later years of schooling. State secondary schools in England
and Wales are classed as either grammar schools, comprehensive schools, city technology colleges
or academies. Within Scotland, there are only two types of state-run schools, Roman Catholic
or non-denominational. Most secondary schools in England and Wales are comprehensive schools.
Grammar schools have been retained in some counties in England. Academies are a new type
of school introduced in 2000 by the New Labour government of Tony Blair. Independent secondary
schools generally take pupils at 13. The table below lists the equivalent secondary
school year systems used in the United Kingdom: Private schools in England and Wales generally
still refer to years 7-11 as 1st-5th Form, or alternatively privates schools refer to
Year 7 as IIIrds, Y8 as LIV, Y9 as UIV, Y10 as LV, Y11 as UV and then Sixth-Form.
England, Wales and Northern Ireland Education in England, Wales, Northern Ireland
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, students usually transfer from primary school straight
to secondary school at age 11. In a few parts of the UK there are middle schools for ages
9 to 13, and upper schools for ages 13–18. A handful of 8-12 middle schools, an 12-16
or 18 secondary schools still exist. These schools were first introduced in September
1968, and the number rose dramatically during the 1970s, but the number of such schools
has declined since the mid-1980s. It is uncommon, but sometimes secondary schools
can also be split into ‘Upper’ and ‘Lower’ secondary schools.
Education is compulsory up until the end of year 11, and schooling can continue for a
further two years after that. Traditionally the five years of compulsory secondary schooling
from ages 11 to 16 were known as “first year” through to “fifth year,” but from September
1990 these years were renumbered Year 7 through to Year 11 with the coming of the National
Curriculum. After Year 11 a student can opt to remain
at school, transfer to a college, or to leave education and seek work or to start an apprenticeship.
Those who stay at school enter Years 12 and 13. These years are traditionally known as
the Sixth Form, and require students to specialise in three to five subjects for their A Levels.
In ever-increasing numbers since the 1990s some students also undertake more vocational
courses at college such as a BTEC or other such qualification.
This is an unusually specialised curriculum for this age group by international standards,
and recently some moves have been made to increase the number of subjects studied. After
attaining the relevant A Level qualifications the student can enter university.
Scotland In Scotland, students usually transfer from
primary to secondary education at 12 years old.”A Guide to Education and Training in
Scotland”. A World of opportunity. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Retrieved 17 October
2012.  The first and second years of secondary school is a continuation of the 5-14 curriculum
started in primary school. After which students choose which subjects they wish to study with
certain compulsory subjects such as English and Mathematics for S3 and S4. These are called
Standard Grades, but some schools use Intermediates which take two years to complete with an exam
at the end of S4. After Standard Grades/Intermediates, some students leave to gain employment or
attend further education colleges, however nowadays most students study for Highers,
of which five are usually studied. These take a year to complete. After which some students
decide to apply for university or stay on for 6th year, where other Highers are gained,
or Advanced Highers are studied. Due to the nature of schooling in Scotland, undergraduate
honours degree programmes are four years long as matriculation is normally at the completion
of highers in S5, which compares with three years for the rest of the UK. As well as instruction
through the English language education Gaelic medium education is also available throughout
Scotland. United States As part of education in the United States,
secondary education comprises grades 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. This varies among
school districts. Grades 9 through 12 is the most common grade structure for high school.
Vietnam High school in Vietnam, called Trung học
phổ thông, is mandated for children from the age of 16 to 18. In high school, students
have 12 compulsory subjects to learn including Literature, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics,
Biology, History, Geography and Foreign language. For each of which, there are two levels of
study: Basic and Advanced. They are divided into five groups:
Basic group: All subjects are in basic level. Group A: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
are in advanced level. Group B: Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology
are in advanced level. Group C: Literature, History and Geography
are in advanced level. Group D: Mathematics, Literature and Foreign
language are in advanced level. Students will graduate from high school if
they pass the Graduation Test of 6 subjects. If not, they must wait for a year to retake
the test. Names for secondary education by country
Argentina: Secundaria or Polimodal, Escuela secundaria
Australia: High School, Secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, “Höhere
Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azərbaycan: Orta Məktəb
Bahamas, The: Junior High, Senior High Belgium: middelbare school, secundair onderwijs,
humaniora, école secondaire, humanités Bolivia: Educación Primaria Superior and
Educación Secundaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija
Brazil: Ensino Médio, Colegial, Segundo Grau; Bulgaria: Гимназия, Лицей
Chile: Enseñanza Media. Colombia: Bachillerato, Segunda Enseñanza(literally
Second Learning) People’s Republic of China: zhong xue, consisting
of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12
Canada: high school, secondary school, école secondaire, lycée, collegiate institute,
polyvalente Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija
Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο(gymnasium), Ενιαίο Λύκειο
Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště
Denmark: gymnasium Estonia: Gymnasium, Lyceum
Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée
Germany: Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Realschule, Hauptschule, Fachoberschule
Greece: Γυμνάσιο(gymnasium), Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο,
Hong Kong: Secondary school(中學) Hungary: gimnázium, középiskola, szakközépiskola
Iceland: framhaldsskóli India: secondary school
Indonesia: Sekolah Menengah Atas, Sekolah Menengah Pertama, Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan,
Italy: scuola secondaria di primo grado + scuola secondaria di secondo grado: Liceo
and Istituto Tecnico. Japan: chūgakkō, kōtōgakkō, chūtōkyōikugakkō
– In the pre-Meiji educational system, the equivalent was called “chūsei”
South Korea: 중등교육, comprising 중학교 and 고등학교
Liechtenstein: gymnasium Lithuania: vidurinė mokykla, gimnazija, licėjus
Malaysia: secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school is used
Malta: skola sekondarja or secondary school Mexico: Educación secundaria y preparatoria
Netherlands: middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
New Zealand: high school, college or secondary school
Norway: Videregående skole Paraguay: Educación Media
Peru: Educación Secundaria or Escuela Secundaria Philippines: High School or Mataas na Paaralan
Poland: gimnazjum, liceum Portugal: 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico, 3º
Ciclo do Ensino Básico, and Ensino Secundário, Liceu
Romania: gimnaziu, liceu Russia: средняя школа
Serbia: gymnasium, professional’ schools, vocational schools
Spain: Educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. and Bachillerato; formerly,
primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed
of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. and C.O.U. Sweden: gymnasium
Switzerland: gymnasium, secondary school, collège or lycée
Taiwan: Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, and
Complete High School. Turkiye: Lise
United Kingdom: Secondary School
Ukraine: середня освіта United States: high school is always considered
secondary education; junior high school or middle school are sometimes considered secondary
education. Uruguay: Liceo or Secundaria, Biology, Science,
and Art. Vietnam: Trung học phổ thông.
Egypt: Thanawya Amma,. See also Education Index
Category:Secondary education by country for secondary education in individual countries
List of colleges and universities by country List of the oldest schools in the world
List of schools by country References

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